What is Sperm Mapping and how does it help
Sperm Mapping or extended FNA mapping (done in Unobstructive Azoospermia cases) is a minimally invasive day care technique that helps in identifying the location of the sperm. This technique was popularized by Paul Turek, MD of the Turek clinic in USA. As this procedure involves only extraction of cells this does not have any morbidity. Also this completely maps the testis thereby telling us the location of the sperm. It also helps us in choosing the ideal sperm retrieval technique that can be used at a later date.
What is Azoospermia?
Azoospermia is the complete absence of sperms in the ejaculate of men in both the neat sample and after centrifugation.
What are the types of Azoospermia?
There are two types of Azoospermia. Obstructive Azoospermia is where there is some obstruction to the passage of sperm. Non Obstructive Azoospermia is where there is no obstruction to sperm passage but there is testicular failure.
Sperm Retrieval Techniques from Testis
The different techniques that can be employed are Percutaneous Epidydymal sperm Aspiration (PESA), Microscopic Epidydymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA), Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE), and Micro TESE.
What are the problems with conventional techniques
The conventional techniques though effective can miss the location of the sperm. In the case of MicroTESE, the procedure is very morbid and might result in injury to the testis compromising its blood supply. In TESE as the exact location of the sperm is not known there can be multiple cuts on the testis that might actually result in tissue and hormonal loss.