Male Fertility

Sperm Retrieval procedures

Testicular Sperm Extraction / Testis Biopsy

A testis biopsy involves removing a small quantity of tissue from one or both testes. The procedure can be done under local or general anaesthesia. Usually indicated in men when the semen analysis shows azoospermia. Never done to rule out cancer. A testis biopsy is an invasive procedure. The lab results from the pathologists usually come back as

  • Hypospermatogenesis
  • Maturation Arrest
  • Germ Cell Aplasia (Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome)
  • Normal


Testis Biopsy: Results


Testes biopsy gives valuable information of only the area biopsied. In non obstructive azoospermia, the biopsied region may show an absence of sperm when there could be sperm elsewhere.

MESA – Microsurgical Epidydymal Sperm Aspiration


This is a procedure done under the microscope. The sperm yield is of the highest quality and sometimes may be suitable for insemination. General or Regional Anaesthesia is required.

Testicular Sperm Aspiration


Fine Needle Aspiration of the testes for spermatozoa can sometimes be undertaken in men with normal spermatogenesis. This can be under general/regional anaesthesia or a simple local block.